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Professional Standards and Code of Ethics

The REALTOR® Code of Ethics is designed to establish a public and professional agreement against which the practice and conduct of REALTORS® may be judged.  Each Association is responsible for enforcing the Code of Ethics pursuant to the Bylaws of the National Association of REALTORS®.

Professional Standards procedures are used by the Williamsburg Area Association of REALTORS® to ensure due process in the conduct of hearings to enforce the REALTOR® Code of Ethics and in the resolution of business disputes arising out of the real estate business. Professional standards procedures must reflect substantively the approved due process policies and procedures of the National Association of REALTORS®. 


Arbitration Process


Professional Standards: Arbitration Process


A key element in the practice of real estate is the contract. Experienced practitioners quickly become familiar with the elements of contract writing. Offer, counter-offer, contingency, waiver, acceptance, rejection, execution, breach, rescission, reformation, and other words of art become integral parts of the broker's vocabulary.

Article three (3) mandates cooperation and together with everyday variables and circumstances many transactions produce several contracts which come into play. Contracts for things such as mortgages, appraisals, inspections, title insurance, etc., are now standard in a typical residential transaction and the same will be true in many commercial transactions as well. There are at least three (and often four) contracts involved and each, while established independently of the others, soon appears to be intertwined with the others.

The listing contract is between the seller and the listing broker. This contract creates the relationship between these parties, establishes the duties of each, and the terms under which the listing broker will be deemed to have earned a commission, and frequently will authorize the listing broker to cooperate with and/or compensate (or both) cooperating brokers who may be subagents, buyer agents, or who may be acting in some other capacity.

Second, there is the contract between the listing broker and cooperating brokers. This may be created through an offer published through a multiple listing service or through some other method of formalized cooperative effort. The contract is formed only when accepted by the cooperating broker, and acceptance only occurs through performance, that is, through production of a purchaser pursuant to the terms and conditions previously established by the listing broker.

Third, there is the purchase contract sometimes referred to as the purchase and/or sales agreement. This contract is between the seller and the buyer, establishing their obligations to each other, which may also impact third parties. The fact that someone other than the seller or buyer is referenced in the purchase contract does not make them a party to that contract though it may create rights or entitlements which may be enforceable against a party (the buyer or seller).

Fourth, there may be a buyer broker agreement in effect between the purchaser and a broker. Similar in many ways to the listing contract, this contract establishes the duties of the purchaser and the broker as well as the terms and conditions of the broker's compensation.

These contracts are similar in that they are created through offer and acceptance. They vary in that acceptance of a contract is through a reciprocal promise, e.g., the purchaser's promise to pay the agreed price in return for the seller's promise to convey good title; while acceptance of a unilateral contract is through performance, e.g., in producing (or procuring) a ready, willing and able purchaser.

A contract, once formed, may be breached. These and other questions of contract formation arise on a daily basis. There are several methods by which contractual questions (or "issues" or "disputes") are resolved. These include civil lawsuits, arbitration, and mediation.

Associations of REALTORS® provide arbitration to resolve contractual issues and questions that arise between members, between members and their clients and, in some cases, between parties to a transaction brought about through the efforts of REALTORS®. Disputes arising out of any of the above-referenced contractual relationships may be arbitrated and the rules and procedures of Associations of REALTORS® require that certain types of disputes must be arbitrated if either party so requests.  While issues between REALTORS® and their clients, e.g. listing broker/seller (or landlord) or buyer broker/buyer (or tenant), are subject to mandatory arbitration (at the client's request), and issues between sellers and buyers may be arbitrated at their mutual agreement. The majority of arbitration hearings conducted by Associations involve questions of contracts between REALTORS®, most frequently between listing and cooperating brokers. These generally involve questions of procuring cause where the panel is called on to determine which of the contesting parties is entitled to the funds in dispute. While awards are generally for the full amount in question (which may be required by state law), in exceptional cases, awards may be split between the parties (again, except where prohibited by state law). Split awards are the exception rather than the rule and should be utilized only when hearing panels determine that the transaction would have resulted only through the combined efforts of both parties. It should also be considered that questions of representation and entitlement to compensation are separate issues.

In the mid-1970's, the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS® established the ARBITRATION GUIDELINES to assist Associations in reaching fair and equitable decisions in arbitration to prevent the establishment of any one, single rule or standard by which arbitrable issues would be decided and to ensure that arbitrable questions would be decided by knowledgeable panels taking into careful consideration all relevant facts and circumstances.

The ARBITRATION GUIDELINES have served the industry well for nearly two decades. If you find it necessary to file for Arbitration with the Williamsburg Area Association of REALTORS® please use the required forms below.


pdf WAAR Arbitration Request Packet (5.22 MB)


























File Ethics Complaint

Professional Standards: Ethics Complaint

 The single, most outstanding characteristic that sets REALTORS® apart from other real estate practitioners is the willingness to accept and abide by the Code of Ethics of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®. The Code of Ethics, which was first adopted on July 29, 1913, is a living document--responsive in its content to changes in the law and industry. The Code has been revised several times through the years to reflect current developments in professional real estate practice. The term REALTOR® has come to represent competency, fairness, and high integrity. These qualities stem from voluntary adherence to an ideal of moral conduct in real estate business practices.

But even with the best of intention, planning and preparation, occasional disagreements arise between REALTORS® and/or between REALTORS® and their clients or customers. The Williamsburg Area Association of REALTORS® (WAAR) offers its members and their clients and customers a method to resolve complaints if they believe a REALTOR® may have acted in an unethical manner. An ethics hearing may be held and REALTORS® judged by their peers to determine if the code of ethics had been violated.

How the Process Works

 Complaints must first be filed in writing. You can obtain a complaint form by calling the WAAR office, or from this website. Complaints must be filed within 180 days.

  • A Grievance Review Panel will conduct a preliminary investigation of your complaint to determine if an Ethics Hearing should be held to determine if a violation of the REALTORS® Code of Ethics has occurred.
  • Ethics hearings are not held to resolve civil matters or criminal complaints--they are only held to determine if the REALTORS® Code of Ethics had been violated.
  • If the Grievance Committee concludes that a hearing should be held, both parties (the complainant and the respondent REALTOR®) are notified of the time and date of the hearing along with instructions as to the procedures that are followed. Both parties are provided an opportunity to state their case and present evidence to the Ethics Hearing Panel.
  • At the conclusion of the hearing, the Panel decides if the REALTORS® Code of Ethics has been violated. Disciplinary action can be taken against the REALTOR® ranging from a warning, requirement of educational training, fines, suspension or even expulsion from the Association. The role of the Association is to vindicate the Code of Ethics and to educate the member.



Complaint Filing Instructions:  

  • Please fill out the complaint form below under "complainant and respondent". The "complainant" is the person filing the complaint. The "respondent" is the person(s) you are filing the complaint against.
  • Review the REALTORS® Code of Ethics and state on the complaint form under "Complainant(s) Charge(s)" the article(s) you feel have been violated. The WAAR Grievance Committee will review your complaint to determine if an ethics hearing is warranted before the Professional Standards Committee. Should the Grievance Committee determine that an ethics hearing should be held, the appropriate article(s) would be cited prior to an ethics hearing.
  • Along with the complaint form, You must return a signed and dated written statement that explains the nature of your complaint. The complaint must be filed within 180 days of the time the facts regarding the complaint could have been known.
  • Please allow sixty (60) days for the Grievance Committee's investigation process. After that time, you will be notified in writing of the Committee's decision.


For more information on filing an ethics complaint, or should you have any questions, feel free to contact Cindy Homewood at the Williamsburg Area Association of REALTORS (757) 253-0028; or e-mail at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Ethics Complaint Packet *use for complaints















































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